Dealing With The Loss Of A Loved One

There are five commonly recognised stages of grief, as proposed by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross in her book “On Death and Dying.” These stages are:

1. Denial

2. Anger

3. Bargaining

4. Depression

5. Acceptance

However, it’s important to note that these stages are not a definitive or exhaustive list, and they are not experienced by everyone in the same way or order. Grief is a complex and individual process, and people may experience a wide range of emotions and reactions when dealing with loss. Some individuals may go through additional stages or have unique variations in their grieving process. The stages of grief provide a general framework, but it’s important to recognize that each person’s journey through grief is unique.


During the stage of denial, individuals often experience difficulty acknowledging or accepting the reality of their loss. It is a natural defense mechanism that shields them from the initial impact of overwhelming emotions. This stage can manifest in various ways.

Shock and Numbness: When faced with a significant loss, individuals may initially feel a profound sense of shock. It can be a state of emotional and mental numbness, where they find it hard to grasp or comprehend what has happened. This initial shock acts as a buffer against the intense emotional pain that may follow.

Disbelief: Denial often involves a sense of disbelief, where individuals struggle to accept the truth of the situation. They may find themselves questioning the reality of the loss, hoping that it is just a bad dream or a misunderstanding. This disbelief serves as a protective mechanism, providing a temporary reprieve from the full impact of the grief.

Avoidance: Individuals in denial may try to avoid reminders of the loss or engage in activities that distract them from facing the painful reality. They might avoid talking about the loss, visiting certain places, or engaging in activities that remind them of what they have lost. This avoidance allows them to maintain a sense of normalcy and temporarily sidestep the overwhelming emotions.

Minimizing or Rationalizing: Some individuals in denial may downplay the significance or impact of the loss. They might attempt to rationalize or minimize the emotions associated with it, believing that it is not as profound or life-altering as it actually is. This approach helps to protect them from the intensity of the grief and the accompanying emotional turmoil.

It’s important to note that the stage of denial is typically temporary and serves as a coping mechanism in the early stages of grief. As individuals gradually come to terms with their loss and begin to process their emotions, they can move through denial and into other stages of grief. However, the duration and intensity of the denial stage can vary from person to person, and there is no fixed timeline for progressing through the stages of grief.


When individuals begin to confront the reality of their loss, they may experience a powerful surge of anger and resentment. This stage of grief can be characterized by a range of emotions and reactions, as they grapple with the intense and often conflicting feelings that arise.

Anger Directed Outward: People in this stage may direct their anger towards external sources. They may feel a sense of injustice, believing that the loss is unfair or unwarranted. They might express anger towards specific individuals, such as medical professionals, family members, or even the person they have lost. This anger can stem from a perception of blame or a need to find someone or something to hold responsible for their pain.

Anger Directed Inward: Some individuals internalize their anger and turn it towards themselves. They may harbor self-blame, guilt, or regret, believing that they could have done something differently to prevent the loss. This self-directed anger can be accompanied by feelings of shame, worthlessness, and a deep sense of personal failure.

Frustration and Irritation: Grief-related anger may manifest as general frustration and irritability towards various aspects of life. Individuals might find themselves easily agitated or quick to anger in situations that previously wouldn’t have bothered them. This heightened irritability can be a reflection of the underlying pain and turmoil they are experiencing.

Sense of Injustice: The anger stage can be fueled by a profound sense of injustice. Individuals may struggle to accept why they, or their loved one, had to endure such a loss. They might question the fairness of life or feel a deep resentment towards the circumstances that led to their grief. This sense of injustice can intensify their anger and contribute to feelings of bitterness.

It’s important to recognize that anger is a normal and valid emotion during the grieving process. It serves as a way for individuals to express and release their pent-up emotions. However, it is essential for individuals to find healthy outlets for their anger and seek support to navigate through this stage. As the grief journey progresses, individuals can gradually move beyond anger and explore other stages of grief, allowing for further emotional healing and acceptance.


During the stage of bargaining, individuals facing grief often engage in a process of negotiation or seeking ways to regain what was lost. This stage is characterized by a mix of hope, desperation, and a desire to reverse or alter the outcome of the loss. Here’s an expansion of this stage:

Desire for Control: The bargaining stage arises from a deep longing for control over the situation. Individuals may believe that if they can find a way to make amends or strike a deal, they can bring back what they have lost or prevent further pain. It is an attempt to regain a sense of agency in the face of the overwhelming helplessness that grief can bring.

Making Promises: People in this stage often make promises to a higher power, the universe, or the person they have lost. They may engage in prayers, rituals, or other forms of communication, hoping that by fulfilling certain conditions or demonstrating their commitment, they can reverse the outcome. This can manifest as pleading, bargaining, or making vows in an attempt to influence the course of events.

Fantasising “If Only” or “What If”: Individuals may find themselves dwelling on thoughts of what could have been or what they could have done differently. They may play out scenarios in their minds, imagining alternative outcomes or wishing they could turn back time. These “if only” or “what if” thoughts are driven by the desire to rewrite history and prevent the loss from occurring.

Searching for Solutions: During the bargaining stage, individuals often actively seek solutions or alternatives that could potentially undo or mitigate the loss. They might research medical treatments, consult multiple professionals, or explore unconventional methods in their pursuit of a resolution. This search for solutions reflects their desperate attempts to find a way out of the pain and grief they are experiencing.

Temporary Relief: Engaging in bargaining can provide individuals with temporary relief or a sense of control. It offers a glimmer of hope and allows them to believe that there might still be a chance to change the outcome. However, it’s important to recognize that bargaining is often an emotional response and not a realistic pathway to reversing the loss.

The bargaining stage gradually transitions as individuals begin to accept the limitations of their control and the finality of the loss. It sets the stage for the subsequent stage of grief, which involves facing the depths of one’s emotions in the process of healing and finding acceptance.


When individuals confront the full weight of their loss, they often enter a stage characterized by profound sadness, despair, and a deep sense of emptiness. This stage, commonly known as depression, can be an emotionally challenging and isolating experience. Here’s an expansion of this stage:

Profound Sadness: The experience of profound sadness during the stage of depression is a natural response to the significant loss individuals have endured. It encompasses a deep and overwhelming sorrow that permeates their thoughts, emotions, and daily life. This sadness can manifest as frequent crying, a heavy heart, and a general feeling of emotional pain.

Despair and Hopelessness: Individuals in this stage may experience a sense of despair and hopelessness, feeling as if their grief will never end or that they will never be able to recover. They may question the meaning and purpose of life, struggling to find any sense of direction or hope for the future. This despair can be all-encompassing and may lead to a loss of motivation or purpose.

Withdrawal from Others: Grief often prompts individuals to withdraw from social interactions and isolate themselves from others. They may feel emotionally exhausted, overwhelmed, or incapable of engaging in social activities. This withdrawal can stem from the fear of burdening others with their pain or the difficulty of finding solace in the presence of well-meaning but ultimately inadequate comfort.

Loss of Interest and Joy: Depression can cause a loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities and a diminished capacity to experience joy. Hobbies, relationships, and passions that once brought fulfillment may now seem empty or meaningless. This loss of interest and joy is a common feature of depression during the grieving process.

Emotional and Physical Exhaustion: The weight of grief can lead to emotional and physical exhaustion. Individuals may feel drained, fatigued, and lacking energy. The emotional toll of grieving can take a significant toll on their overall well-being, making even simple daily tasks feel overwhelming and exhausting.

Difficulty Finding Motivation: Depression can result in a lack of motivation to engage in daily responsibilities and tasks. Individuals may struggle to find the energy or drive to carry out routine activities, such as work, household chores, or self-care. This lack of motivation can be a result of the emotional heaviness they are experiencing.

It’s important to note that while depression is a common aspect of the grieving process, it is distinct from clinical depression, which may require professional intervention and support. With time, support, and self-care, individuals can gradually move through the stage of depression and begin to find healing and renewed purpose in their lives.


In the final stage of grief, individuals embark on a journey of coming to terms with the reality of their loss. Acceptance, in this context, does not imply a sense of complete resolution or an absence of pain, but rather a recognition and acknowledgment of the new reality they must face. Here’s an expansion of this stage:

Acknowledging the Reality: During the stage of acceptance, individuals gradually internalize the truth of their loss. They begin to accept that their loved one is gone or that the situation has changed irreversibly. While this acceptance can be difficult and painful, it represents a shift towards facing the reality with greater clarity and understanding.

Integration and Adjustment: Acceptance involves integrating the loss into one’s life narrative and identity. It means acknowledging that the loss has left an indelible mark, and finding a way to incorporate this experience into their sense of self. Individuals start to redefine their identity in light of the loss, incorporating the memories and legacies of what was lost into their ongoing journey.

Establishing a New Normal: As acceptance deepens, individuals gradually establish a new normal in their lives. They navigate the practical and emotional adjustments that come with the loss, finding ways to adapt to the changes it has brought. This can involve restructuring daily routines, making practical arrangements, and finding support systems that assist them in moving forward.

Finding New Meaning: While the pain of loss may persist, individuals in the acceptance stage often begin to explore and discover new meanings and purposes in their lives. They may engage in activities that honor the memory of their loved one, contribute to causes related to their loss, or find ways to make a positive impact based on the lessons learned from their grief journey. This process of finding new meaning can help individuals find a sense of fulfillment and renewed purpose.

Regaining Emotional Stability: As acceptance takes root, individuals gradually regain emotional stability and a greater sense of inner peace. While moments of sadness and grief may still arise, they become more manageable and integrated into their emotional landscape. Individuals learn to navigate their emotions and develop coping strategies that support their emotional well-being.

It’s important to note that acceptance is not a linear process, and individuals may experience fluctuations in their emotions even after reaching this stage. Grief is a unique and personal journey, and the duration and intensity of the acceptance stage can vary widely among individuals. Each person’s path to acceptance is unique, and it’s essential to offer support, patience, and understanding during this transformative stage of grief.

You may find that people may move back and forth between each stage or experience them in different orders. Additionally, not everyone experiences all these stages, and some individuals may have unique variations or additional stages in their grieving process. Grief is a highly individual experience, and it can take varying amounts of time for different people to work through their emotions and find healing.

Three ways to deal with grief

Allow Yourself to Feel and Express Emotions: It is important to acknowledge and allow yourself to experience the range of emotions that come with grief. Whether it’s sadness, anger, guilt, or confusion, suppressing these emotions can prolong the healing process. Create a safe space for yourself to express your feelings, whether through talking to a trusted friend or family member, writing in a journal, or seeking support from a therapist or support group. By allowing yourself to feel and express your emotions, you can begin to process and release them.

Practice Self-Care: Grief can take a toll on your physical and emotional well-being, so prioritizing self-care is crucial. Take care of your basic needs by getting enough rest, maintaining a balanced diet, and engaging in regular physical activity. Engage in activities that bring you comfort and solace, such as spending time in nature, listening to soothing music, practicing mindfulness or meditation, or engaging in creative pursuits. Nurturing your physical and emotional well-being can provide a foundation for healing and help you navigate through grief.

Seek Support from Others: Grief can feel isolating, but connecting with others who have experienced loss or who can provide understanding and empathy can be immensely beneficial. Reach out to friends, family, or a support group dedicated to grief and loss. Sharing your thoughts and feelings with others who can relate can offer comfort, validation, and a sense of belonging. Additionally, consider seeking professional help from therapists, counselors, or grief support specialists who can provide guidance, validation, and specific coping strategies tailored to your needs.

Remember: Everyone grieves differently, and there is no “right” or “wrong” way to grieve. It is a personal and unique process. Be patient and gentle with yourself as you navigate through grief, and allow yourself the time and space to heal at your own pace.